Markers: 3-methylhippurate, 2-methylhippurate
Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are made from oil or coal. They are frequently used in industrial applications due to their solvent properties[1, 2]. Some of the most common sources are in plastics, paints, vehicle exhaust fumes, and tobacco smoke. Respiratory exposure is the most common xylene-exposure pathway . Xylene exposure is linked to chronic neurological symptoms .
Markers: Hippurate, Benzoate
Toluene is an organic solvent found in many household consumer products. These products include gasoline, cleaning fluids, cosmetics, glues, inks, paint thinners, and others. Health effects of excessive toluene exposure include impaired neurological function and fetal toxicity .
Markers: tt-Muconic Acid
Benzene is a highly volatile compound, and its exposure is mainly through inhalation. It is used in many consumer products and exposure can come from automobile exhaust gases, off-gassing from building materials, and cigarette smoke . Benzene is hydroxylated using phase I metabolism, then further metabolized by glucuronidation, sulfation, and glutathione conjugation . Benzene exposure can lead to decrements in the levels of circulating blood cells . Benzene and its metabolites have mutagenic properties and chromosomal damage properties, which can increase the risk of cancer formation, thus benzene has been labeled as carcinogenic[11-13].
Trimethylbenzene is a naturally occurring component of petroleum and coal. Products that contain trimethylbenzene can include aviation fuels, paint thinners, solvents, printing inks, cleaners, dyes, and resins . The effects of acute exposure are respiratory irritation and central nervous system effects . Chronic exposures have shown developmental, reproductive, and mutagenic effects [16, 17]
Markers: Mandelate, Phenyl glyoxylate
Styrene (vinyl benzene) is an important intermediate in the production of plastics. Styrene may be absorbed into the bloodstream through inhalation, ingestion, or by skin absorption . Exposure can lead to cytogenetic and DNA damage . Exposure has been linked to acquired color blindness. Styrene has been established as a neurotoxicant at occupational levels, however less is known how chronic exposure can effect nearby communities .
Markers: Monoethyl Phthalate, Phthalate, Quinolainate
Phthalates are used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. They belong to a class of chemicals listed as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) . Exposure is through inhalation and dermal contact. Phthalate diesters are then metabolized and excreted in urine with a half-life of about 3-18 hrs . A metanalysis by the EPA discusses connection with Phthalate exposure and problems with cognition, motor effects, behavior, ADHD, and social behavior .
Parabens are used as preservative in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and the food industry. Parabens are transformed in the body and about 90% are excreted in urine as a conjugate with the most common being glucuronide and sulphate . In vitro studies have demonstrated some estrogenic activity from this family of compounds . However, many parabens do not have a strong binding to the estrogen receptor, so the actual relevance of this is still an unanswered question .
Methyl Tert-butyl Ether (MTBE) Exposure
MTBE is a fuel additive which acts as an octane booster and oxygenating agent . MTBE is also used to treat gallstones, where it is perfused into the liver’s biliary track to dissolve the gallstone . Exposure to MTBE has been reported to cause neurologic symptoms, dizziness, and nausea . MTBE can also affect development through the inhibition of angiogenesis, the development of veins and arteries.
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