Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A significant heterogeneity in immune response against pathogens, in particular, SARS-CoV-2, exists among the general population. In fact, three completely different immunotypes were reported in patients hospitalized with COVID-19:
1. With robust CD4 and highly activated CD8+ T cells, and high level of antibody production.
2. With robust CD8+ T cells, but less activated T cells and lower level of antibody production.
3. With minimal lymphocyte activation and response to SARS-CoV-2, and possibly lack of antibody production.
This heterogeneity in immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may result in different responses to the virus as well as to vaccine antigens.
Detection of low or high levels of IgG antibody made against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleoprotein in the blood is the most practical approach for the assessment of an individual’s immune response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating recent or prior response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Elevation in IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 above the reference ranges indicates exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or vaccination.
A low level of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 antigens after infection with COVID-19 or vaccination may indicate a lack of immune response to the viral antigens.
Cumulative evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 has the ability to induce hyper-stimulation of the immune system, therefore leading to the synthesis of multiple autoantibodies, which may trigger possibly pre-existing autoimmune diseases. These autoimmune responses may develop through two principal mechanisms: 1) the ability of the virus to induce hyper-stimulation of the immune system; 2) the molecular resemblance between the virus and self-components of the host. Due to its great similarity to human tissue, SARS-CoV-2 has also been called the autoimmune virus. The virus and its disease, COVID-19, have been associated with various autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes, Graves’ disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, polyneuritis cranialis, post orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Miller Fisher syndrome, Kawasaki disease, and vasculitis.
When should I use
Initial symptoms of Autoimmunity may include fatigue, aching tendons or muscles, inflammation, and low fever but also consider for patients with suboptimal health and innocuous symptoms
Other tests to consider:
MS2019 Epstein-Barr virus
MS2025 Autoimmune Trio Panel
MS2023 Viral Panel Comprehensive